Friday, January 17, 2014

Going Local: Desegregating Dartmouth's Fraternities

A copy of The Dartmouth, with the heading "Point One Ekes Out Majority By Four Votes; Amasses 1,128."In March 1954 something rather extraordinary happened at Dartmouth. The undergraduate council, led by future Dartmouth President David McLaughlin, put before the entire student body a referendum to end discrimination in the fraternities. 86.5% of the student body voted, and the measure passed by a thin majority of just four votes. The referendum required that by April 1, 1960, "any fraternity with a written or unwritten nationally imposed discriminatory clause that restricts, or can be interpreted to restrict, membership because of race, religion or national origin shall cease to be eligible to participate in fraternity activities on this campus." In other words, fraternities could no longer blackball prospective pledges based on race, religion or nation origin.

A typed list of fraternities and their discriminatory clauses.
A page of typed minutes from a Board of Trustees meeting.A 1956 document shows what the fraternities were up against. The national chapters of many of the organizations restricted membership to "white Christians" and even some without formal policies had unwritten understandings that had to be adhered to by the local chapters. The result of the referendum was that many fraternities broke their national affiliations and "went local." It is interesting to think that one of the driving forces that created Dartmouth's distinctive Greek system was a majority vote by students in the 1950s who were committed to equal rights for a minority population on campus.

A printed pledge for fraternity presidents declaring their chapters have no discriminatory clauses.
A different kind of "pledge"
In addition to documents related to the decision to end the discriminatory clauses, we have a fraternity ballot box which once could have been used to blackball a non-white or non-Christian pledge.

To learn more, ask for the vertical file "Fraternities, 1950-1979."

Tuesday, January 14, 2014

The Unpredictable Joyce

A title page for Joyce's "Ulysses." Imagine setting the type for James Joyce's Ulysses.... There is one 43-page run of text that consists of a only six paragraph breaks and no punctuation. Scattered through the book is music, headlines, and a made up word here and there. So it should be no surprise that the first edition ran a little behind schedule.

Laid into our first edition is concrete evidence of Sylvia Beach's frustration: the original prospectus from Shakespeare and Company. "The Autumn of 1921" is mostly scratched out and corrected by hand to read January 1922. Inside, the physical description of the book has been modified from 600 pages to 800 pages (it comes to 732 in the final version).

A set of printed advance press notices.A printed edition note.

A printed order form.The order form would appeal to any book collector. It advertised the price of 350 francs for the deluxe version on Dutch hand made paper. As of this writing, there are two copies available priced over $200,000. Our copy is the pedestrian 150 franc version on hand made paper.

To see it with the first edition, ask for Val 827J853 X71.